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Headphone Measurements

Reviewed on: SoundStage! Solo, October 2018

I measured the Elegias using a G.R.A.S. Model 43AG ear/cheek simulator/RA0402 ear simulator, a Clio 10 FW audio analyzer, a laptop computer running TrueRTA software with an M-Audio MobilePre USB audio interface, and a Musical Fidelity V-CAN amp, with an Audio-gd NFB-1AMP used for distortion measurements. On the Model 43AG, I used the new KB5000 anthropomorphic simulated pinna for most measurements, and the original KB0065 pinna for certain other measurements, as noted. These are “flat” measurements; no diffuse-field or free-field compensation curve was employed.

Frequency response

The above chart shows the Elegias’ frequency response measured with the new KB5000 and KB5001 anthropomorphic simulated pinnae. This is the best match I was able to achieve between the left and right channels. They match very closely in the midrange, where it counts most. There is a pretty big difference in the bass, which I have to suspect may be due to the way the earpads seal on the face of the ear/cheek simulator (which has to be turned 180 degrees when doing left-ear measurements), but the bass response you see here was very consistent as I moved the headphones around on the simulator, and I usually get a better match than this. Caveats aside, this is an unusual measurement in that the peak in the 3kHz region (which is generally considered to make headphones sound more like speakers in a room) is very mild, only about 4dB above the response at 500Hz; often, the peak is more like 12dB above the 500Hz response.

Frequency response

This chart shows the Elegias’ right-channel frequency response measured with the old KB0065 pinna (which I’ve used for years) and G.R.A.S.’s new KB5000 pinna, which I recently switched to because it more accurately reflects the structure and pliability of the human ear. This is just for sake of comparison with older measurements of mine.

Frequency response

Here you can see how the Elegias’ tonal balance changes when they’re used with a high-impedance source, such as a cheap laptop or some cheap professional headphone amps. It’s a significant effect; the higher-impedance source produces a broad boost that maxes out at 2.6dB at 90Hz, enough to audibly tilt the tonal balance (and in a way I think would likely be to most people’s taste).

Frequency response

This chart shows the Elegias’ right-channel response compared with two other high-end closed-back headphones (the Audeze LCD-XCs and the MrSpeakers Æon Flows with their two-hole white filter installed), as well as the Sony MDR-7506es, a standard fixture in audio production work that generally conform to the “Harman curve,” shown in research by Harman International to be the preferred over-ear headphone response for most listeners. These measurements use the older KB0065 pinna, because that’s the only measurement I have for the LCD-XCs. You can see how unusually flat the Elegias’ response is here.

Waterfall

The Elegias’ spectral decay (waterfall) chart shows a fairly strong resonance at 3.2kHz, which doesn’t seem to correspond to any particular feature of the frequency response. It’s well-damped, though, and nearly gone after about 5ms.

THD

Measured total harmonic distortion (THD) of the Elegias is almost non-existent above 150Hz, and barely breaches 2% in the bass even at the extremely loud level of 100dBA.

Isolation

In this chart, the external noise level is 85dB SPL, and numbers below that indicate the degree of attenuation of outside sounds. The Elegias’ isolation is very good for a passive closed-back model, generally beating the MrSpeakers Æon Flows and easily beating the smaller NAD Viso HP50s. I threw in the Focal Clear isolation measurement to show the advantage in isolation gained by the closed-back design of the Elegias.

Impedance

The Elegias’ impedance response is typical for closed-back, dynamic-driver headphones, with the impedance generally hovering close to the rated 35 ohms and rising to 57 ohms peak at the 70Hz system resonance. The phase response is fairly flat for large dynamic-driver headphones.

The sensitivity of the Elegias, measured between 300Hz and 3kHz with the leatherette pads using a 1mW signal calculated for 35 ohms impedance, is 102.9dB. That’s quite high for audiophile-oriented headphones, and it should be enough to get loud volumes from almost any source device.

. . . Brent Butterworth
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Reviewed on: SoundStage! Solo, April 2019

I measured the Empyrean headphones using laboratory-grade equipment: a G.R.A.S. Model 43AG ear/cheek simulator/RA0402 ear simulator with KB5000/KB5001 simulated pinnae, and a Clio 10 FW audio analyzer. For isolation measurements, I used a laptop computer running TrueRTA software with an M-Audio MobilePre USB audio interface. The headphones were amplified using a Musical Fidelity V-CAN and an Audio-gd NFB-1AMP. Except as noted, measurements were made using the leather earpads. These are “flat” measurements; no diffuse-field or free-field compensation curve was employed. If you’d like to learn more about what our measurements mean, click here.

Frequency response

The above chart shows the Empyreans’ frequency response. This is flatter than I usually measure in large, open-back audiophile headphones. We can still see the typical broadband rise in the bass and lower mids, as well as the usual peaks in the 3 and 6kHz regions, but the magnitude of these rises is a few dB less than typical.

Frequency response

Here you can see how the frequency response changes when the velour earpads are used. The velour pads basically provide a broadband reduction of -1 to -4dB below 3kHz, which will make them sound more trebly.

Frequency response

This chart shows how the Empyreans’ tonal balance changes when they’re used with a high-impedance (75 ohms) source, such as a cheap laptop or some cheap professional headphone amps. Using the higher-impedance source produces a change only below 20Hz, which won’t be audible.

Frequency response

This chart shows the Empyreans’ right-channel response compared with two high-end open-back headphones (Audeze LCD-Xes and HiFiMan HE1000 V2s) and one high-end closed-back model (Focal Stellias). Interestingly, the Empyreans’ response is closer to that of the closed-back Stellias than it is to the open-back models.

Waterfall

The Empyreans’ spectral decay (waterfall) chart shows the same hashy, low-level (-40dB) midrange resonance I see in almost all planar-magnetic models (which is apparently caused by sonic reflections between the large, flat driver diaphragm and the flat plate of the ear/cheek simulator), but the lower-frequency resonances seem somewhat better-controlled than in most headphones I’ve measured.

THD

The Empyreans’ measured total harmonic distortion (THD) is nearly zero within the audioband, even at extremely high listening levels.

Isolation

In this chart, the external noise level is 85dB SPL, and numbers below that indicate the degree of attenuation of outside sounds. Isolation of the Empyreans is comparable to that of most other open-back audiophile headphones -- i.e., there isn’t much.

Impedance

The impedance magnitude of the Empyreans is essentially flat at about 31 ohms (the rated impedance is 31.6 ohms), with a tiny rise to 34 ohms centered at 82Hz.

Sensitivity of the Empyrean headphones, measured between 300Hz and 3kHz, using a 1mW signal calculated for 31.6 ohms rated impedance, is 99.1dB -- basically right on the rated 100dB, and sufficient sensitivity to let you get loud volumes when plugging the Empyreans straight into a smartphone or tablet.

. . . Brent Butterworth
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Reviewed on: SoundStage! Solo, March 2019

I measured the AH-D7200s using laboratory-grade equipment: a G.R.A.S. Model 43AG ear/cheek simulator/RA0402 ear simulator with KB5000/KB5001 simulated pinnae, and a Clio 10 FW audio analyzer. For isolation measurements, I used a laptop computer running TrueRTA software with an M-Audio MobilePre USB audio interface. The headphones were powered using a Musical Fidelity V-CAN and an Audio-gd NFB-1AMP. These are “flat” measurements; no diffuse-field or free-field compensation curve was employed. If you’d like to learn more about what our measurements mean, click here.

Frequency response

The above chart shows the AH-D7200s’ frequency response. This is unusual in that there’s little or none of the usual peak centered near 3kHz that we see in almost all headphones. This peak is generally considered necessary to create a reasonable simulation of hearing real speakers in a room. Without such a peak, headphones are unlikely to create a natural sense of space, and are likely to sound dull. Note that these measurements are the ones that were most typical (i.e., roughly average) of numerous measurements taken of each channel with the earcups in slightly different positions on the ear/cheek simulator. In the right channel, I was occasionally able to measure a mild peak of a few dB in the 3kHz range, but in most measurements it didn’t show up. I never got it to appear in the left-channel measurements no matter how I positioned the earcups.

Frequency response

This chart shows how the AH-D7200s’ tonal balance changes when they’re used with a high-impedance (75 ohms) source, such as a cheap laptop or some cheap professional headphone amps. Using the higher-impedance source produces a slight extra kick in the bass -- a boost of about 1dB centered at 30Hz.

Frequency response

This chart shows the AH-D7200s’ right-channel response compared with two other high-end closed-back headphones (Audeze LCD2 Closed-Backs and Bowers & Wilkins P9s) and the Quad ERA-1s, which I consider a semi-open-back (or semi-closed-back, if you prefer) design. While the AH-D7200s are similar in many ways to the Audeze LCD2 Closed-Backs, they have 4 to 8dB less energy between 1.3 and 4kHz.

Waterfall

The AH-D7200s’ spectral decay (waterfall) chart shows practically no resonance at all across the entire audioband. There’s one resonance at 5kHz, but considering that it’s extremely narrow, and that it’s down to -40dB within about 2ms, it’s highly unlikely to be audible.

THD

The AH-D7200s’ measured total harmonic distortion (THD) is near zero above 100Hz at the loud listening level of 90dBA, rising to just 3% at 20Hz. Predictably, there’s more at the crazy-loud level of 100dBA -- 2% at 100Hz, rising to 4% at 50Hz and 8% at 20Hz -- but because the distortion is limited to the bass, the distortion harmonics will be low in pitch and probably won’t be troublesome, especially considering that your ears will be begging for mercy at that listening level, anyway.

Isolation

In this chart, the external noise level is 85dB SPL, and numbers below that indicate the degree of attenuation of outside sounds. Isolation of the AH-D7200s is comparable to that of the other closed-back models shown, and adequate to block most office chatter and light background music.

Impedance

The impedance magnitude of the AH-D7200s is mostly flat at or near the rated 25 ohms, with a small rise to 32 ohms centered at 34Hz. That little rise is why the bass response varies with different source impedances. The impedance phase is very close to flat.

Sensitivity of the AH-D7200s, measured between 300Hz and 3kHz, using a 1mW signal calculated for 25 ohms rated impedance, is 99.7dB. That’s about 5dB below the rated sensitivity, but still sensitive enough that you can get plenty of volume when plugging the AH-D7200s straight into a smartphone or tablet.

. . . Brent Butterworth
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Reviewed on: SoundStage! Solo, March 2019

I measured the Momentum True Wireless earphones using laboratory-grade equipment: a G.R.A.S. Model 43AG ear/cheek simulator/RA0402 ear simulator with KB5000/KB5001 simulated pinnae, and a Clio 10 FW audio analyzer. For isolation measurements, I used a laptop computer running TrueRTA software with an M-Audio MobilePre USB audio interface. A MEE Audio Connect Bluetooth transmitter was used to send signals from the Clio 10 FW to the earphones. These are “flat” measurements; no diffuse-field or free-field compensation curve was employed. Note that because of the latency introduced by Bluetooth, I wasn’t able to do a spectral decay measurement, and of course my usual impedance and sensitivity measurements are irrelevant for wireless earphones. If you’d like to learn more about what our measurements mean, click here.

Frequency response

The above chart shows the Momentum True Wirelesses’ frequency response measured with the KB5000 and KB5001 anthropomorphic simulated pinnae. This is not terribly far from normal, although many earphones will have a bigger bump in the bass, and there’s less energy in the 5kHz region than we typically see.

Frequency response

This chart shows the Momentum True Wirelesses’ right-channel response compared with several other earphones, including the Jabra Elite Active 65t (another true wireless model), the Sennheiser HD Free (a wireless model with a cable connecting the earpieces), and the AKG N5005 earphones, the designs that currently best conform to the “Harman curve,” shown in research by Harman International to be the preferred in-ear headphone response for most listeners. You can see that while the Momentum True Wirelesses aren’t outliers, their response is generally flatter, with less bass output and somewhat attenuated response between 3 and 6kHz.

Tone

This chart shows the operation of the unusual tone control within Sennheiser’s Smart Control app. The dark blue line is the response with the tone control centered. (This is a measurement with a real-time analyzer and pink noise, so it looks much different than my usual frequency-response measurements, which are done with logarithmic chirp tones.) Note that a wide variety of tonal ranges are possible through the app. Although precise settings are not possible with this app, it has a range of about +4/-7dB in the bass and +/-6dB in the treble.

THD

Because of the latency of the Bluetooth connection, it was possible for me to get a stable measurement of distortion versus frequency only at the extremely loud level of 100dBA. Even at this high level, distortion is typically around 1%, and peaks out at about 2.5%.

Isolation

In this chart, the red line indicates an external noise level is 85dB SPL, and numbers below that indicate the degree of attenuation of outside sounds. The Momentum True Wirelesses’ isolation is about average for earphones fitted with silicone tips, although not as good as can be achieved with a model using over-ear cable routing, such as the Massdrop x NuForce EDC3s.

. . . Brent Butterworth
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Reviewed on: SoundStage! Solo, March 2019

I measured the Next headphones using laboratory-grade equipment: a G.R.A.S. Model 43AG ear/cheek simulator/RA0402 ear simulator with KB5000/KB5001 simulated pinnae, and a Clio 10 FW audio analyzer. For isolation measurements, I used a laptop computer running TrueRTA software with an M-Audio MobilePre USB audio interface. The headphones were amplified using a Musical Fidelity V-CAN and an Audio-gd NFB-1AMP. These are “flat” measurements; no diffuse-field or free-field compensation curve was employed.

Frequency response

The above chart shows the Nexts’ frequency response. Surprisingly, considering our listeners’ reactions, this response is within the range of normal for headphones, but we can see two idiosyncrasies that correspond with our subjective impressions. There’s a shallow but unusually broad bass boost -- it spans about five octaves, while dynamic headphones might typically show a stronger but much narrower boost about two-and-a-half octaves wide. Also, the peak at 5.7kHz is a little stronger than the 3kHz peak. I’d normally expect that peak to be about 3 to 6dB weaker than the 3kHz peak.

Frequency response

This chart shows how the Nexts’ tonal balance changes when they’re used with a high-impedance (75 ohms) source, such as a cheap laptop or some cheap professional headphone amps. Using the higher-impedance source produces a very slight increase in the bass of about 1dB at 50Hz.

Frequency response

This chart shows the Nexts’ right-channel response compared with a few other audiophile headphones in the same approximate price range as well as with the AKG N700NCs, the headphones that probably come closest to conforming to the so-called “Harman curve.” The Nexts are close in some ways to the AKG N700NCs, although with a weaker and much broader bump in the bass, and more energy between 5 and 6kHz.

Waterfall

The Nexts’ spectral decay (waterfall) chart shows near-zero resonance across the entire audioband. There’s just one very high-Q (i.e., narrow) resonance centered at 2.3kHz, which corresponds with a quarter-wavelength of about 1.5”, so it might be occurring within the earpads.

THD

The Nexts’ measured total harmonic distortion (THD) is unusual in that it’s basically flat at 3% in the bass at both of the test-signal levels I use for measuring. Normally it would rise at the higher level. Although it’s a little strange, I’d guess it isn’t a big deal, as 10% is the commonly accepted threshold for distortion audibility in subwoofers.

Isolation

In this chart, the external noise level is 85dB SPL, and numbers below that indicate the degree of attenuation of outside sounds. The isolation measurement of the Nexts suggests they’re really more of a semi-open-back design than a pure open-back design like the HiFiMan Anandas -- i.e., they do offer a modest amount of isolation at frequencies above about 1.5kHz.

Impedance

The impedance magnitude of the Nexts is just about dead flat at 16 ohms (same as the rating), and the impedance phase curve is similarly flat.

Sensitivity of the Nexts, measured between 300Hz and 3kHz, using a 1mW signal calculated for 16 ohms rated impedance, is 97.0dB. That’s a couple dB above the breaking point between “needs an amp” and “works OK plugged straight into a smartphone.”

. . . Brent Butterworth
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Reviewed on: SoundStage! Solo, February 2019

I measured the Stellias using laboratory-grade equipment: a G.R.A.S. Model 43AG ear/cheek simulator/RA0402 ear simulator with KB5000/KB5001 simulated pinnae, and a Clio 10 FW audio analyzer. For isolation measurements, I used a laptop computer running TrueRTA software with an M-Audio MobilePre USB audio interface. The headphones were amplified using a Musical Fidelity V-CAN or an Audio-gd NFB-1AMP. These are “flat” measurements; no diffuse-field or free-field compensation curve was employed.

Frequency response

The above chart shows the Stellias’ frequency response. This is a little flatter than I typically measure from audiophile headphones. There’s a very mild resonant bass bump centered at 100Hz, and less of a pronounced peak between 2 and 4kHz than most audiophile headphones exhibit.

Frequency response

This chart shows how the Stellias’ tonal balance changes when they’re used with a high-impedance (75 ohms) source, such as an inexpensive laptop or some cheap professional headphone amp -- or more likely in the Stellias’ case, a tube amp with transformer output (although that still wouldn’t be near 75 ohms). Using the higher-impedance source produces an increase in bass of 2 to 2.5dB below 400Hz.

Frequency response

This chart shows the Stellias’ right-channel response compared with the Focal Clear, HiFiMan HE1000 V2, and Sennheiser HD 800 S headphones. You can see a bit of family resemblance between the Stellias and the Clears, although they have significant differences. The HE1000 V2 and the HD 800 S headphones have a lot more treble energy and less bass energy than the Stellias.

Waterfall

Across almost the entire audioband, the Stellias’ spectral decay (waterfall) chart shows a little more resonance than I’m used to seeing, but it’s almost entirely damped out within 6ms (one full cycle at 167Hz), so it’s very unlikely to be audible.

THD

The Stellias’ measured total harmonic distortion (THD) is inconsequential at the loud listening level of 90dBA (measured with pink noise). At the extremely loud level of 100dBA, it gets up to around 4% below 100Hz, but in the bass, 4% isn’t a big deal. (The generally accepted figure for audible harmonic distortion in subwoofers is 10%.)

Isolation

In this chart, the external noise level is 85dB SPL, and numbers below that indicate the degree of attenuation of outside sounds. Isolation of the Stellias is in the same ballpark as other closed-back models such as the Audeze LCD2 Closed-Backs and the NAD Viso HP50s -- plenty enough to shield you against jibber-jabber and light background music in the unlikely event you bring your Stellias to Starbucks.

Impedance

The impedance magnitude of the Stellias averages about 40 ohms, and runs as high as 56 and as low as 31 ohms. That swing in the bass is what produces the difference in response when switching from a low-impedance source to a high-impedance source. Despite the fairly large magnitude swing, the impedance phase is reasonably flat.

Sensitivity of the Stellias, measured between 300Hz and 3kHz, using a 1mW signal calculated for 35 ohms rated impedance, is 104.0dB. For a large set of audiophile headphones, that’s really impressive -- feel free to plug them straight into your smartphone if you like.

. . . Brent Butterworth
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Reviewed on: SoundStage! Solo, February 2019

I measured the Ultimate Ones using a G.R.A.S. Model 43AG ear/cheek simulator/RA0402 ear simulator with KB5000/KB5001 simulated pinnae, a Clio 10 FW audio analyzer, a laptop computer running TrueRTA software with an M-Audio MobilePre USB audio interface, and a Musical Fidelity V-CAN amp, with an Audio-gd NFB-1AMP used for distortion measurements. These are “flat” measurements; no diffuse-field or free-field compensation curve was employed.

Frequency response

The above chart shows the Ultimate Ones’ frequency response. This looks typical except for the pronounced dip between 300Hz and 2kHz. Note the roughly three-octave-wide bump in the bass response. Because the bump is so wide, it will tend to make the bass sound moderately elevated in level rather than boomy.

Frequency response

This chart shows how the Ultimate Ones’ tonal balance changes when they’re used with a high-impedance (75 ohms) source, such as a cheap laptop or some cheap professional headphone amps. There’s barely any difference, just a roughly 1dB bass boost between 30 and 60Hz with the high-impedance source.

Frequency response

This chart shows the Ultimate Ones’ right-channel response compared with a few other headphones in the same price range (AudioQuest NightHawk, HiFiMan HE400i, and Sennheiser Massdrop HD 6XX). Note that these are all referenced to 94dB at 500Hz. Obviously, the Ultimate Ones’ deep midrange dip will make them sound quite a bit different than the other models shown here.

Waterfall

The spectral decay (waterfall) chart shows a little more resonance in the bass than I’m used to seeing, but it’s at -20dB right from the start and falls below -40dB after 8ms, or about one-and-a-half cycles at 200Hz, so I would be very surprised if it’s audible.

THD

At the loud listening level of 90dBA (measured with pink noise), the Ultimate Ones’ measured total harmonic distortion (THD) is a little high below 100Hz. The bass distortion doesn’t rise much at the extremely loud level of 100dB, but there’s a little more distortion between 1.3 and 2.2kHz.

Isolation

In this chart, the external noise level is 85dB SPL, and numbers below that indicate the degree of attenuation of outside sounds. I’d classify the Ultimate Ones as semi-open-back, as they offer more isolation than fully open headphones such as the HiFiMan HE400i’s, but less isolation than a typical closed-back model such as the NAD Viso HP50.

Impedance

The impedance magnitude of the Ultimate Ones averages about 37 ohms and doesn’t vary much from that, and the impedance phase is also flat.

Sensitivity of the Ultimate Ones, measured between 300Hz and 3kHz, using a 1mW signal calculated for 35 ohms rated impedance, is 97.0dB. So they’ll probably play loud enough from most smartphones, although you might not be able to get them really cranking.

. . . Brent Butterworth
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Reviewed on: SoundStage! Solo, January 2019

I measured the HE6se headphones using a G.R.A.S. Model 43AG ear/cheek simulator/RA0402 ear simulator with KB5000/KB5001 simulated pinnae, a Clio 10 FW audio analyzer, a laptop computer running TrueRTA software with an M-Audio MobilePre USB audio interface, and a Musical Fidelity V-CAN amp, with an Audio-gd NFB-1AMP used for distortion measurements. These are “flat” measurements; no diffuse-field or free-field compensation curve was employed.

Frequency response

The above chart shows the HE6ses’ frequency response. This is comparable to what I’ve seen with many HiFiMan models, and not far outside what I’ve seen from most open-back planar magnetics, except that the peak between 3 and 4kHz (which is generally considered necessary to create the illusion of hearing real speakers in a real room) is a few dB higher than normal.

Frequency response

This chart shows how the HE6ses’ tonal balance changes when they’re used with a high-impedance source, such as a cheap laptop or some cheap professional headphone amps. (Of course, the headphones’ low sensitivity means it’s practically impossible to use them with a low-quality amp.) There’s essentially no difference at all, which means the HE6ses’ tonal balance probably won’t change if you decide to use them with, say, a high-output-impedance tube amp.

Frequency response

This chart shows the HE6ses’ right-channel response compared with three other open-back planar-magnetic models (the Audeze LCD-Xes, Focal Clears, and Quad ERA-1s with the leather pads). The strength of that peak between 3 and 4kHz is evident here; no way these headphones won’t sound a little bright.

Waterfall

The midrange hash -- the very narrow, high-Q resonances between 3 and 5kHz -- of the HE6ses are seen in almost all the spectral decay (waterfall) measurements I’ve done of planar-magnetic headphones, but here they’re focused across a smaller band and are higher in magnitude. This corresponds with the big peak in the frequency response in this same range. Meanwhile, the bass resonance is practically non-existent, the least I can remember measuring in any headphones.

THD

The HE6ses’ measured total harmonic distortion (THD) is pretty low, except for a weird little bump to about 3.5% centered near 1.5kHz. This is at the extremely loud listening level of 100dBA, though.

Isolation

In this chart, the external noise level is 85dB SPL, and numbers below that indicate the degree of attenuation of outside sounds. The HE6se headphones offer among the least isolation from outside sounds that I’ve ever measured -- but of course, open-back models aren’t supposed to isolate you from outside sounds, and the fact that the HE6ses provide so little isolation also means that the acoustical impedance of their rear grilles is very low, which may have contributed to the big sense of space I heard from these.

Impedance

As usual with planar-magnetic headphones, the impedance magnitude of the HE6ses is almost perfectly flat. It’s about 65 ohms through the entire audio range, and the impedance phase is also flat.

Brace yourself, because the sensitivity of the HE6ses, measured between 300Hz and 3kHz, using a 1mW signal calculated for 50 ohms rated impedance, is 79.2dB, more than 4dB lower than the already-low rating of 83.5dB. Which means you will definitely need an exceptionally powerful amp for these.

. . . Brent Butterworth
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